By Scott G. Ortman
The “abandonment” of Mesa Verde and the formation of the Rio Grande Pueblos characterize vintage occasions in North American prehistory. but, regardless of a century of study, no consensus has been reached on accurately how, or perhaps if, those occasions have been comparable. during this landmark research, Scott Ortman proposes a singular and compelling approach to this challenge via an research of the genetic, linguistic, and cultural background of the Tewa Pueblo humans of recent Mexico.
Integrating information and techniques from human biology, linguistics, archaeology, and cultural anthropology, Ortman indicates outstanding social transformation happened as Mesa Verde humans moved to the Rio Grande, such that the ensuing ancestral Tewa tradition was once a special hybrid of rules and practices from a variety of resources. whereas addressing a number of long-standing questions in American archaeology, Winds from the North also serves as a methodological guidebook, together with new techniques to integrating archaeology and language in accordance with cognitive technological know-how examine. As such, it is going to be of curiosity to researchers in the course of the social and human sciences.
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Extra resources for Winds from the North: Tewa Origins and Historical Anthropology
This is not to say that languages are immune from influence. Speakers routinely adopt individual words from other languages when they come in contact, and more significant influences in grammar and phonology can occur through a process called interference through shift, in which people who join a speech community learn the new language imperfectly and transmit these “errors” to native speakers (Thomason and Kaufman 1988:37–45). Nevertheless, there are only two situations in which languages that are not demonstrably descended from a single parent language arise (Thomason and Kaufman 1988:147–199).
Modes of cultural transmission Vertical Horizontal Oblique Concerted Transmitter Parent Peer Teacher/leader Receiver Child Peer Student/follower Novice/ apprentice Variation within population High Can be high Low Very low Can be rapid Most rapid Most conservative Rate of change Slow Expert/elder Source: Shennan 2002:50. 7 Transformation Forces The fourth requirement of an inheritance system is transformation forces. Two such forces are responsible for transformation in biological systems. The first is natural selection, or differential reproduction by phenotypes, which leads to increases in the proportion of certain alleles in a population, and decreases in others.
Comparison of human inheritance systems Inheritance System Function Sources of Variation Mode(s) of Period of Transmission Transmission Transformation Phylogenetic Forces Signal Results of Contact Genes Physiological adaptation Mutation Vertical Moment of conception Natural selection, drift Moderate: isolation by distance, but also admixture Gene flow Language Communication iological B differences, guided variation Vertical for cquisition, a horizontal/ oblique for adoption of innovations Childhood for acquisition, then continuous throughout life span Physiological and perceptual limitations, primary and secondary value selection Strong: distinct languages do not merge readily Borrowing, bilingualism, interference, language shift Culture Behavioral a daptation iological B differences, guided variation Vertical, orizontal, h oblique, concerted Continuous throughout life span Primary and secondary value selection, influenced by imposition Strong in stationary Hybridity, groups, weak in incorporation, acculturation migrating groups 30 Chapter 2 Ethnic Identity and Ethnic Groups The reaffirmation of genes, language, and culture as distinct systems of inheritance raises a question of fundamental importance for this study: whether the ethnic group, in this case the Tewa, is an appropriate unit of study for historical anthropology.
Winds from the North: Tewa Origins and Historical Anthropology by Scott G. Ortman