By Fernando Pacheco-Torgal
Eco-efficient development and development fabrics studies methods of assessing the environmental impression of building and construction fabrics. half one discusses the applying of lifestyles cycle overview (LCA) technique to development fabrics in addition to eco-labelling. half contains case reports exhibiting the appliance of LCA technique to varieties of development fabric, from cement and urban to wooden and adhesives utilized in development. half 3 comprises case stories making use of LCA technique to specific buildings and parts.
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A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. 3 Degree of depletion as a percentage of the main non-fuel mineral commodity reserves. Updated from Valero and Valero (2010a). of 31 years, tin (77%, 19 years), arsenic (75%, 23 years), antimony (74%, 11 years), gold (74%, 21 years), lead (73%, 21 years) and silver (72%, 19 years). Conversely, the minerals of caesium, thorium, rare earth elements (REE), iodine, vanadium, potash, platinum group metals (PGM), tantalum, aluminium and cobalt are the least depleted commodities, having extracted less than 20% of their respective reserves.
This chapter presents the methodological principle and framework of the life cycle assessment (LCA) for the analysis of sustainable building materials. The chapter reviews LCA tools, studies and concludes with limitations of the LCA method. 1 Sustainable building materials The building and construction industry consumes great quantities of raw materials and energy. According to Bribian et al. (2011), approximately 24% © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2014 40 Eco-efficient construction and building materials of global raw materials were consumed by the industry.
The former are defined as the energy required to restore the mine in composition and concentration from the crust with currently available technologies. As further stated in Valero and Valero (2010a), the bell-shaped curve is better suited to minerals if it is fitted to exergy or exergy replacement costs over time instead of mass production of the metal commodity over time. Oil quality keeps near constant with extraction, whereas other non-fuel minerals do not (a mineral’s concentration decreases as a mine is increasingly exploited).
Eco-efficient construction and building materials: Life cycle assessment (LCA), eco-labelling and case studies by Fernando Pacheco-Torgal