By Geoffrey Mays
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Extra resources for Durability of concrete structures : investigation, repair, protection
Water-filled voids and saturated porous aggregate particles will behave in a similar manner. When porous particles or voids under aggregate particles are near a surface there will usually be pop-out. Low water-cement ratios lead to a smaller capillary pore system so that the freezing effects are much reduced. 25mm of gel and are not water filled. When water in surrounding capillaries freezes, the hydraulic pressure build-up is accommodated by expansion into the air bubble system. One episode of freezing is not enough to cause damage and major effects occur after a number of freeze-thaw cycles, particularly if they succeed each other rapidly.
Air is in direct contact with the external surfaces of the concrete and the surfaces will be carbonated very quickly after first exposure. As air enters the capillary pores of the concrete the CO2 it contains is rapidly used up by reaction with the hydroxides. There is therefore decarbonated air in the concrete in intimate contact with normal air outside. In this condition there is a positive movement of CO2 towards the depleted air in an attempt to restore a uniform concentration. This movement from a high concentration to a low concentration is called ‘diffusion’.
M. (1977) Properties of Concrete, 2nd edn, Pitman, London. Pullar-Strecker, P. (1987) Corrosion Damaged Concrete, Assessment and Repair, Butterworths, for Construction Industry Research and Information Association, London. 1 Introduction Before undertaking repairs to concrete structures it is essential to discover the cause(s) of distress or deterioration. The importance of a correct and comprehensive diagnosis cannot be overstated and, when considered in relation to the cost of many repair contracts, the cost of initial investigations and the preparation of concise specifications is minimal.
Durability of concrete structures : investigation, repair, protection by Geoffrey Mays