By Yoav Peled
This learn makes an attempt to give an explanation for the emergence of a specific kind of ethno-class cognizance between Jewish employees within the Russian light of cost. It examines a few insights built via "reactive nationalism" and resurrects the various debates among the Bund and its political opponents. the writer examines the ideological improvement of the Bund, the labour circulate which emerged from the come upon among Jewish staff and Jewish socialists, and analyzes the Bund within the mild of the realities confronted by way of Jewish staff within the labour marketplace. The ethno-class attention is obvious the following as a product, in flip, of the very advanced relationships which prevailed among Jewish employees, Jewish employers and non-Jewish employees within the interval of Russia's early industrialization.
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Extra info for Class and Ethnicity in the Pale: The Political Economy of Jewish Workers’ Nationalism in late Imperial Russia
The share of factory workers in the total population of the Pale was also only one third of their share in European Russia. 1 Indicators of industrial development by region and by ethnic background of factory owners, 1897-98. 7 na (a) 1897. Russian Ministry of Finance figures. (b) 1898. Jewish Colonisation Association figures. SoURCES Lestchinsky, 1906, pp. 35-6, and Tables III, IV; Rubinow, 1975, pp. 537-9. 4 million, comprised 14 per cent of the total population and over 50 per cent of the urban population, was economically the most backward region.
In the towns, Jewish artisans were being displaced by the advance of modern industry, while the massive influx of peasants into the urban labour market created a chronic condition of over-supply in that market. 26 To be sure, not all Jews were affected adversely by the development of capitalism in Russia. Those who had succeeded in accumulating sufficient merchant capital were able to play an important role in the emergent capitalist economy as bankers, industrialists and railroad magnatesY Vast numbers of Jews, however, experienced serious and rapid decline in their economic fortunes.
A high percentage of Russian workers were employed in mining and steel production and on the railways-strategic industries within the capitalist economy. Thus, while most Russian workers participated in the dynamic, rapidly expanding sectors of the economy, Jewish workers were fighting to maintain their hold on stagnant, dead-end, rapidly declining forms of production. SUMMARY Jewish nationalism and the Jewish labour movement were both products of the 'uneven development' of Jewish life in Europe in the 19th century.
Class and Ethnicity in the Pale: The Political Economy of Jewish Workers’ Nationalism in late Imperial Russia by Yoav Peled