By Simmons Daphne
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Extra resources for Citrus fruits: production, consumption and health benefits
Hesperetin is the 3‟,5,7-trihydroxy-4‟-methoxy flavanone, and hesperidin contains not only the flavanone moiety, but also a rutinose disaccharide that has one Drhamnose united with glycoside bond to the D-glucose unit. This paper presents and discusses chemical and physical properties of the orange bioflavones, as well as the most common methods of isolating and purifying these compounds. As a secondary plant metabolite, hesperidin is produced as a protective agent in citrus, and its defense role and biosynthesis will also be briefly discussed here.
Also for the outside selected source for energy (coal) the CO2 equivalents was increased in comparison to the use of biomass. Last can be reflected in the integration patterns with high energy level coupling with cogeneration schemes. Furthermore, the potential environmental impact is affected by both energy levels and process waste streams final disposition. This is why it is observed in Figure 8 that as the level of global integration increases the potential environmental impact decreases. In this chapter, it is evident that the use of strategies such as mass and energy integration in hierarchical levels can increase significantly the economic viability when a multiproduct portfolio is presented.
SPECTRAL DATA OF HESPERIDIN After isolation and purification from orange peel, hesperidin structure (Figure 6) can be determined or confirmed based on NMR and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. 09 (1H, s). The 13C NMR spectrum also shows characteristic chemical shifts for hesperidin (Figure 8, Table 2). FTIR spectrum of hesperidin (Figure 9) shown a strong band of OH stretching (str) at 3544 and 3470 cm-1, CH (aliphatic) at 2976, 2916 and 2848 cm-1, C = C (aromatic) at 1606, 1519, 1467 and 1443 cm-1 and C = O (str) at 1648 cm-1, C-O (str) at 1298, 1276, 1240, 1203, 1182, 1154, 1131, 1094, 1050, 1033, and 1009 cm-1.
Citrus fruits: production, consumption and health benefits by Simmons Daphne