By Jim Hightower, Ted Smith, David A. Sonnenfeld, David Naguib Pellow
"Challenging the Chip" is the 1st complete exam of the affects of electronics production on staff and native environments worldwide. The essays during this quantity give a contribution to a collaborative foreign discourse of voters, employees, well-being execs, lecturers, labour leaders, environmental activists, and others with the typical objective of constructing substitute visions for the rules and sustainable improvement of producing, assembly/disassembly, and waste disposal within the worldwide electronics undefined. individuals from Asia, North the USA, Europe, and Latin the US supply multidimensional views at the technology and the politics of environmental and social justice, documenting the efforts of group and labour activists, executive businesses, and others in introducing extra sustainable structures of construction to at least one of the world's biggest production industries.
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Additional info for Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry
Since the mid-1980s, some newcomer companies in the computer and network equipment industries in Silicon Valley—Sun and Cisco in particular—have teamed up with specialized contractors like Solectron (a former solar energy company) and Flextronics, who subsequently became leading players in the new industry. Companies like Sun and Cisco are essentially fabless. In other words, they have minimal or no manufacturing capacities of their own, just like brand-name ﬁrms in the garment and shoe industries, such as Nike (Sturgeon 1999).
Epoxy resin systems widely used in the encapsulation of chips added more chemicals to the list, including glycidyl ethers, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene, 2,3-epoxyhexadecane, m-phenylenediamine (MPDA), 4,4 methylenedianiline (MDA), diaminodiphenylsulfone (DADDPS, DDS, dapsone), o-toluidine, 2,4-toluene diamine, methylenebis-o-chloroaniline (MOCA), benzidine, urea-formaldehyde, and quinones (Garabrant and Olin 1986). R EPRODUCTIVE S TUDIES Because many semiconductor workers are women of childbearing age, the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes was examined among workers at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in Massachusetts.
In mass-manufacturing plants in low-cost regions). At the same time, an increasing amount of engineering work has shifted to low-cost countries, creating hierarchies in the division of labor usually found in manufacturing industries. The simultaneous process of specialization and global reintegration has not only reshaped the electronics industry’s model of production signiﬁcantly but also reinforced the chronic economic instability of high-tech. The bursting of the high-tech “bubble” during the ﬁrst few years of the twenty-ﬁrst century was not only a result of unprecedented speculation and overblown proﬁt expectations, caused by largely uncontrolled ﬁnancial markets (Brenner 2002) but also was related to the production system’s profound transformation during the 1990s.
Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry by Jim Hightower, Ted Smith, David A. Sonnenfeld, David Naguib Pellow