By Olaf Sommerburg, Werner Siems, Klaus Kraemer

ISBN-10: 1439855277

ISBN-13: 9781439855270

content material: Hepatic retinoid metabolism : what's recognized and what's now not / Jason J. Yuen, Jian Zhang Yang and William S. Blaner --
Metabolism of diet A in white adipose tissue and weight problems / Shanmugam M. Jeyakumar ... [et al.] --
Retinoids within the remedy of psoriasis / Neil Borkar, Alan Menter --
Age-related macular degeneration and carotenoids / Nilesh Kalariya, Werner G. Siems, Frederik van Kuijk --
Lutein, zeaxanthin and imaginative and prescient around the lifespan / Billy R. Hammond, Jr. --
Assuring diet A adequacy to avoid eye and ear problems / Tripper Sauer, Susan Emmett, Keith P. West, Jr. --
Disturbed accumulation and irregular distribution of macular pigment in retinal issues / Tos TJM Berendschot, Peter Charbel Issa, Thomas Theelen --
Retinol and otitis media / Akeem Olawale Lasisi --
Carotenoids and mutagenesis / P. M. Eckl ... [et al.] --
Carotenoids and nutrition A in lung melanoma prevention / Anita Ratnasari Iskandar, Xiang-Dong Wang --
Is the influence of [Beta]-carotene on prostate melanoma cells depending on their androgen sensitivity? / Joanna Dulinska-Litewka ... [et al.] --
Carotenoid consumption and supplementation in melanoma : seasoned and con / W.G. Siems ... [et al.] --
diet A in lung improvement and serve as / Hans-Konrad Biesalski --
diet A and carotenoids in lung ailments / Olaf Sommerburg, Werner Siems --
Chemopreventive results of astaxanthin on inflammatory bowel disorder and inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis / Masashi Hosokawa, Yumiko Yasui --
Carotenoids in laboratory drugs / Ingolf Schimke, Michael Vogeser --
offer of diet A in constructing international locations / Klaus Kraemer --
nutrition A intakes are lower than techniques in an important share of the inhabitants within the western international / Hans-Konrad Biesalski, Barbara Trösch, Petra Weber --
severe appraisal of nutrition A supplementation software in India / Dechenla Tshering Bhutia, Saskia De Pee --
outcomes of universal genetic diversifications on SS-carotene cleavage for diet A offer / Georg Lietz, Anthony Oxley, Christine Boesch-Saadatmandi.

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This is a striking amount given that HSCs account for approximately 6%–8% of the cells present in the liver and only approximately 1% of hepatic protein [2–4,50]. Retinol and retinyl esters are found at physiologically significant concentrations in the lipid droplets of adipocytes [11,46,55,56,88], and, as noted earlier, are also found in significant concentrations in hepatocytes. Consequently, other lipid-accumulating cell types can be sites for retinoid storage. These observations have led us to wonder what evolutionary pressures would have selected for specific accumulation of such a large percentage of the body’s retinoid in a relatively minor hepatic cell type.

Interestingly, the hRBP−/− mice have greater muscle retinoid levels than wild-type mice [61]. When placed on a vitamin A-deficient diet, lung retinoid stores of the hRBP−/− mice were depleted more rapidly than that in both wild-type and RBP−/− mice [58]. It was further observed that, on a vitamin A-sufficient diet, hepatic retinoid levels were not different in hRBP−/− mice compared to Rbp−/− mice, but interestingly, these levels were greater than in wild-type mice. Collectively, these observations imply that (i) RBP, irrespective of its tissue origin, can draw upon peripheral tissue retinoid stores to mobilize retinol into the circulation in order to maintain blood retinol levels, and (ii) extrahepatically synthesized RBP is unable to draw upon hepatic retinoid stores.

Like hepatocytes, HSCs do not express Stra6 [76,89], so this membrane receptor for RBP cannot be involved in facilitating retinol uptake into or efflux from HSCs. HSCs express all three of the retinoic acid receptors and all three of the retinoid X receptors and are thus also targets for r­ etinoid action [4,5,89]. Within HSCs, retinoids are stored in lipid droplets, which are a distinguishing morphological feature of these cells [4]. 3 provides an image of primary HSCs cultured overnight following their isolation from chow-fed mice.

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Carotenoids and vitamin A in translational medicine by Olaf Sommerburg, Werner Siems, Klaus Kraemer

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