By Kara Rogers

ISBN-10: 1615301216

ISBN-13: 9781615301218

Even though its ubiquity within the human physique might make it appear unremarkable, easily positioned, blood makes lifestyles attainable. It nourishes cells in the course of the physique and transports carbon dioxide to the lungs. with out it, the physique will be not able to struggle ailment and an infection or functionality in any respect. Readers are invited to persist with the process this outstanding fluid because it circulates during the physique and know about its part elements. particular diagrams complement the textual content and make allowance readers a glimpse into the anatomy and life-sustaining homes of human blood.

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Additional resources for Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body)

Sample text

The large number of different red cell antigens makes it extremely unlikely that persons other than identical twins will have the same array of blood group substances. 34 7 The Fluid of Life 7 Although red cells are usually round, a small proportion are oval in the normal person, and in certain hereditary states a higher proportion may be oval. Some diseases also display red cells of abnormal shape. For example, they may be oval in pernicious anemia, be crescent-shaped in sickle cell anemia, and have projections giving a thorny appearance in the hereditary disorder acanthocytosis.

The male sex hormone, testosterone, stimulates red cell production. Thus, red cell counts of men are higher than those of women. The capacity of the bone marrow to produce red cells is enormous. When stimulated to peak activity and when provided adequately with nutrient substances, the marrow can compensate for the loss of several pints of blood per week. Hemorrhage or accelerated destruction of red cells leads to enhanced marrow activity. The marrow can increase its production of red cells up to eight times the usual rate.

Both the red and white blood cells arise through a series of complex, gradual, and successive transformations from primitive stem cells, which have the ability to form any of the precursors of a blood cell. Precursor cells are stem cells that have developed to the stage where they are committed to forming a particular kind of new blood cell. In a normal adult, the red cells of about half a litre (almost one pint) of blood are produced by the bone marrow every week. Almost 1 percent of the body’s red cells are generated each day, and the balance between red cell production and the removal of aging red cells from the circulation is precisely maintained.

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Blood: Physiology and Circulation (The Human Body) by Kara Rogers


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