By Christopher A. Faraone
The traditional Greeks ordinarily resorted to magic spells to draw and hold lovers--as quite a few allusions in Greek literature and lately came across "voodoo dolls," magical papyri, gem stones, and curse pills attest. Surveying and studying those numerous texts and artifacts, Christopher Faraone unearths that gender is the the most important consider knowing love spells. There are, he argues, special varieties of love magic: the curselike charms used basically by means of males to torture unwilling ladies with fiery and maddening ardour till they hand over sexually; and the binding spells and debilitating potions regularly utilized by ladies to sedate indignant or philandering husbands and cause them to extra affectionate. Faraone's lucid research of those spells additionally yields a couple of insights concerning the building of gender in antiquity, for instance, the "femininity" of socially inferior men and the "maleness" of self reliant prostitutes. most importantly, his findings problem the frequent sleek view that each one Greek males thought of ladies to be obviously lascivious. Faraone unearths the lifestyles of another male realizing of the feminine as "naturally" reasonable and chaste, who makes use of love magic to pacify and keep an eye on the "naturally" indignant and passionate male. This attention-grabbing learn of magical practices and their implications for perceptions of female and male sexuality bargains an strange examine old Greek faith and society.
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133. Ibid. e. e. Gow (1952) 35–36 suggests that Theocritus knew of similar recipes, albeit probably not collected in handbooks. 134. 1 below, where I trace the history of a special coda (“O Lady Cyprogeneia, bring to perfection a perfect incantation”) that seems especially popular in erotic incantations. 135. Brashear (1995) 3390–3420 gives a detailed survey of the problem. Ritner (1993) 99–100 argues for a traditional Egyptian basis for nearly all the rituals in the PGM, a greatly overstated claim, as Graf (1997) 5 notes.
142 The difﬁculty, then, in dealing with the late Greek handbooks lies in separating, if possible, traditional Greek material from Egyptian, Jewish, and other materials. In some cases, this is not so difﬁcult. e. 144 There are, however, some obvi141. The single example is AEMT 1; see Smither (1941) for discussion. 142. ” See the preceding note. 143. SM 46–51. 1–5. 144. See Versnel (1991) 99 n. 68 and Kotansky (1995) 266 n. 50 (for the verb parakatatithemai and related terms of deposit in Greek deﬁxiones); Faraone (1991a) 3–6 (for invocation to “the chthonic Hermes”), 7–8 (the use of lead), 9–10 (for the idea of a legal deposit or consignment of the victim to the underworld gods), 21 n.
106. v. The Latin word venenum, apparently derived from the name of the goddess Venus, undergoes a similar transformation from the speciﬁc (“aphrodisiac”) to the general (“drug, poison, charm”)—a range almost identical with that of Greek pharmakon. 107. 2 for full discussion. 76, and Aeschylus Persians 989. Bury (1886) notes that Virgil translates Theocritus’ iunx with carmina (“magic spells”). 108. 48. See Winkler (1991) 218–219 for charitÁsia. 109. See note 88 above. In medical texts, erection-producing drugs are also called saturika or “tension-producing drugs” (entatika); see Gourevitch (1995) 150.
Ancient Greek Love Magic by Christopher A. Faraone