By Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy
What precisely are phrases? Are they the issues that get indexed in dictionaries, or are they the elemental devices of sentence constitution? Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy explores the consequences of those assorted ways to phrases in English. He explains a few of the ways that phrases are concerning each other, and exhibits how the background of the English language has affected note constitution. issues contain: phrases, sentences and dictionaries; a observe and its elements (roots and affixes); a be aware and its types (inflection); a observe and its kin (derivation); compound phrases; observe constitution; productiveness; and the ancient resources of English notice formation.
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Additional resources for An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure
32) The grass is greenest in early summer. The grammatical words that green, greener and greenest express are the positive, comparative and superlative of , contrasting on the dimension of comparison. Other adjectives with similar forms are: 02 pages 001-152 18/10/01 3:43 pm Page 41 A WORD AND ITS FORMS : INFLECTION (33) Positive happy long pure untidy good Comparative happier longer purer untidier better 41 Superlative happiest longest purest untidiest best All these exhibit a regular pattern of sufﬁxation with -er and -est, except for better and best, which are suppletive.
Other determiners include , () and , but only one other determiner exhibits a singular–plural contrast: , with singular and plural forms that and those. The determiners and demonstrate that number contrasts can have a grammatical effect inside noun phrase as well as between subject noun phrases and their accompanying verbs. In many languages, the distinction that English expresses by word order in John loves Mary and Mary loves John is expressed by inﬂectional means on the words corresponding to Mary and John.
Most linguists would say no; rather, they would treat this as showing that one lexeme may be represented by two (or more) quite distinct root morphemes (not allomorphs). The term given to this phenomenon is suppletion; go and went are said to be distinct roots (and hence distinct morphemes), standing in a suppletive relationship as representatives, in different grammatical contexts, of one lexeme. This view of suppletion, as a 02 pages 001-152 34 18/10/01 3:43 pm Page 34 AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY relationship between roots rather than between allomorphs, is consistent with the ‘concrete’ view of allomorphy outlined just now in relation to the plural sufﬁxes.
An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure by Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy