By Prof. Pierre Bouverot (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3642823165

ISBN-13: 9783642823169

ISBN-10: 3642823181

ISBN-13: 9783642823183

Adaptation to altitude hypoxia is characterised by means of a range offunctional alterations which jointly facilitate oxygen trans­ port from the ambient medium to the cells of the physique. All of those alterations should be noticeable at one time or one other during hypoxic publicity. but, as already under pressure (Hannon and Vogel, 1977), an exam of the literature supplies just a sketchy and sometimes conflicting photo of the precise nature of those alterations and the way they have interaction as a functionality of publicity length. this is often in part as a result of the restricted variety of variables explored in a given examine, however it is additionally because of modifications in experimental layout, modifications between species in susceptibility to hypoxia, nonstandardized experimental stipulations, loss of right keep watch over of actual (e. g. , temperature) and physiological variables (e. g. , physique mass), failure to take measurements at key classes of publicity, and gaps in wisdom approximately a few basic mechanisms. in addition the to be had info on animals local to excessive altitude are meager and/or inconclusive. wide additional paintings less than well-controlled experimental stipulations is needed ahead of a close photograph will be made. however, it's been a tenet within the prepara­ tion of this monograph fairly to summarize the tremendously dis­ persed fabric that constitutes the comparative body structure of variation to excessive altitude right into a coherent photo, than to supply a entire survey of the field.

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3), and the cause which makes the specific ventilation, Y/M 02 , lower in air-breathers (open symbols, right) than in water-breathers (closed symbols, below), as stressed by Rahn (1966) and Dejours et al. (1970). Yet Y/M 02 would be still greater in the aquatic animals if they had extracted O 2 from the inhaled medium as air-breathers do; in fact they extract two to three times more O 2 (Fig. 3 in the aerial ones). Such a high O 2 extraction by water-breathers is generally attributed to the efficient counter-current system of gills (Randall 1970, 1982; Shelton 1970).

In these models, flowing internal medium (blood, b) comes into diffusional exchange contact (D) with an outer medium (gas, g, or water, w) also streaming in most cases. 3, left), reptiles, and amphibians. They exist also in some fishes; but these do not live at high altitude. As a typical example, the mammalian lung can be viewed as a chamber within the body open to the outside by a single channel, the trachea. ~~/_-'....... lib Vb' cross-current infinite pool counter-current E A :--- -'--' ......

Minimal, in these experiments is a crucial point. Hill (1959) stressed that" ... the conflicting results reported for small mammals, and the apparent difference between them and larger mammals, can both be explained by 30 A PIo",Torr 41 32 65 152 10 20 30 10 20 30 O. , Torr Fig. 4. Resting O 2 consumption of white rats (Wistar) at different combinations of ambient temperatures and partial pressures of O 2 , (After Arieli et al. 1977). A Mean values (± SD; n = 6) of the O 2 consumption were measured at rest in 12 experimental conditions of temperature (30°,20°, and 10 DC) and Po, (152, 65, 41, and 32 Torr in ambient dry gas), and have been expressed as relative to the normoxie value at 30°C (black dot).

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Adaptation to Altitude-Hypoxia in Vertebrates by Prof. Pierre Bouverot (auth.)

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