301 circuit. Vol. four КНИГИ ;АППАРАТУРА Название: 301 circuit. Vol. 4Издательство: ElektorКоличество страниц: sixty seven Формат: PDF Размер файла: 14 Mb Язык: EnglishСборник схем журнала Elektor .com. eighty five
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301 circuit. Vol. four КНИГИ ;АППАРАТУРА Название: 301 circuit. Vol. 4Издательство: ElektorКоличество страниц: sixty seven Формат: PDF Размер файла: 14 Mb Язык: EnglishСборник схем журнала Elektor . com. eighty five
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4. Flat, disk-shaped molecules exhibiting a discotic liquid-crystalline phase. R = Cn H2n+1 is an alkyl group In nematic 7 (N) liquid crystals the positions of the centers of mass of rod-like molecules is disordered, while the orientation of their longitudinal axes is more or less ordered, as shown schematically in Fig. 5(a). Because of the disordered arrangement of the centers of mass, the system – just like any liquid – is invariant under arbitrary translations. e. invariance under rotations is broken: only rotations about the director – that is, the direction n of the long axis of the mesogenic groups –, and rotations through 180◦ about the directions perpendicular to it will take the system into itself.
As directions n and −n are equivalent, 9 10 From the Greek word for hand, χ ιρ (cheir), referring to the fact that hands are not mirror symmetric. The name refers to cholesterol esters, the ﬁrst substances that were identiﬁed as liquid crystals. 2 Classiﬁcation of Condensed Matter According to Structure 27 the wavelength (chiral pitch) of the cholesteric phase is given by λ = π/q. This may depend sensitively on temperature but it is usually around 300–500 nm, that is, the pitch is on the same order as the wavelength of visible light.
There is some sort of long-range order in the spatial orientation of relative atomic positions, however no regular periodic structure is formed. We shall see in Chapter 10 that the pair-correlation function is then similar to that of amorphous materials, while the diﬀraction pattern and the structure factor S(K) – determined using methods of structural analysis – are similar to those of crystalline materials. For this reason, they are called quasicrystals. In the largest part of our solid-state physics studies we shall be concerned with the properties of crystalline solids, since classical solid-state physics is the physics of crystalline materials.
303 circuits Practical electronic circuits for the home constructor